Did the River Murray Ever Cross the Mount Lofty Ranges?

A theory as old as the hills – but how old is that, exactly?


The Problem of Morgan

The River Murray descends from the Great Dividing Range at Albury, and for the next 800km follows a fairly steady northwest course.

That changes at Morgan, where the river makes a sharp left turn towards Goolwa and the sea.

The bend at Morgan has been attributed to the Morgan Fault, which lies just west of the river. But if the fault created the bend, where did the river go before the fault was formed?

Did it keep going, and where to?

A western route for the river seems crazy, not least because just west of Morgan lies the impassable barrier of the Mount Lofty Ranges. But a western route was proposed by Williams and Goode in 1978 who searched the ranges for the abandoned river all the way to Spencer Gulf.

The Route Across the Ranges

The western route theory proposes that before the Mount Lofty Ranges were formed, the River Murray continued northwest and discharged to Spencer Gulf. The river was defeated when the ranges were raised and flow was deflected south by the Morgan Fault. Clues to the original route can still be found across the landscape.

The first clue lies in Burra Creek, a small ephemeral stream that drains the western Mount Lofty Ranges and joins the Murray at Morgan. The alignment of the creek is key, because it continues northwest beyond Morgan. Could this be the former channel of the Murray, now flowing in reverse?

The second clue is in the ranges. Burra Creek lines up with the Broughton River, which continues the northwest route on the other side of the range.

The shape of the Broughton River channel is peculiar. Today it is a small, seasonal watercourse – not much more than a creek. But it flows through a channel that is very broad and deep, indicating it was once the course of a major drainage system.

The Broughton River near Spalding

The final clue is in the gulf, where the Broughton River snakes its way across an oversized delta. Although the river small and seasonal, its delta stretches 40 km from Port Pirie to Port Broughton and bulges 18 km into the sea. According to the theory, this is the ancient mouth of the River Murray.

Debunking the Theory

The western route of the River Murray was always hard to believe, but that doesn’t make it easy to disprove. The theory hinged on the River Murray being older than the ranges which, even in 1978, was not clear. It took another 10 years to sort things out.

The Murray Basin formed when Australia separated from Antarctica, 50 million years ago. The sediments that first filled the basin, and have filled it ever since, stop at the foot of the ranges. Therefore ranges have always presented a barrier at the western extent of the Murray Basin.

The sediments washing off the ranges also indicate their age. These date back at least to the Eocene.

As far as the Broughton River delta goes, it’s big, but it isn’t big enough. If you compare it with the vast volumes of sediment carried by the Murray drainage system, the delta is far too small. In fact, the Broughton River delta isn’t much bigger than similar alluvial deposits from the ranges at Noarlunga and Willunga. In the past the Broughton River drained a wetter catchment and would have carried more sediment. And the shallow floor of the gulf contributes to the delta’s broad extent.

In the same way, the oversized channel of the Broughton River is more easily explained by a wetter climate in the geological past than by a westerly flowing River Murray.

So What does the Bend at Morgan Mean?

More recent work has shown that the course of the River Murray through South Australia is actually quite new.

Previously, the Murray Basin drained through the Douglas Depression in western Victoria and reached the sea near Portland. This route was blocked by faulting 2.4 million years ago, which dammed the Basin and created the vast freshwater Lake Bungunnia.

Adapted from McLaren et al. (2011)

The present day route of the Murray formed only 700,000 years ago when Lake Bungunnia was breached. Water spilt southwards from the lake at Swan Reach and carved the Murray Gorge.

Having cut a route downstream, the gorge continued to erode upstream towards Morgan. This route was probably guided by fractures in the underlying limestone that run parallel to the Morgan Fault.

So the deflection of the Murray River at Morgan is an illusion. It doesn’t represent the redirection of a flow moving downstream, but rather the path of the river channel eroding upstream.

References and Further Reading

McLaren, S., Wallace, M.W. and Reynolds, T. (2012). The Late Pleistocene evolution of palaeo megalake Bungunnia, southeastern Australia: A sedimentary record of fluctuating lake dynamics, climate change and the formation of the modern Murray River. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 317-318: 114-127.

Stephenson, A.E. and Brown, C.M. (1989). The ancient Murray River system. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11: 387-395.

Twidale, C.R, and Bourne, J.A. (2009). Course of the lower River Murray in South Australia: effects of underprinting and neotectonics? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 121: 207-227.

Williams, G.E. and Goode, A.D.T. (1978). Possible western outlet for an ancient Murray River in South Australia. Search 9: 442-447.


The River Murray Weirs – Part 3 of 3: Mitigating the Impacts

The River Murray Weirs were constructed 100 years ago to provide passage for riverboats and to supply water to inland communities. But the weirs have also degraded wetlands, salinised floodplains and devastated native fish populations. 

In this final article I describe how weirs are now being managed to reduce their impacts and even to help the environment.

Mitigating the Impacts

Over the course of the 20th century River Murray flow was gradually brought under tighter control. Weirs, dams and control systems were used to reduce flow variability and to provide reliable water supply.

Until the 1990s the main purpose of these investments was economic prosperity. But, starting with the weirs, environmental outcomes have gradually been introduced to river operations and environmental health is now central to how the river is run.

1. Fishways

The harm caused by weirs to migrating fish was obvious as soon as they were constructed.

Fish swimming upstream were blocked at the foot of each weir. In 1928, so many fish accumulated below the new Torrumbarry weir that the river was being plundered by commercial and recreational fishers. Fishing was banned for a mile downstream to give the fish a chance. Similar impacts were observed at other the weirs. The weirs represented such a threat to inland fisheries that there was an outcry among fishers and conservationists.

To overcome the problem, fishways were proposed. A fishway is a flowing channel that provides a long, gentle slope for fish to swim around a weir. Fishways had proved effective for salmon in North American rivers, so similar designs were used to build fishways at Lock 6 and Lock 15 in 1930 and 1937.

Unfortunately neither fishway worked well. The designs that suited energetic salmon in fast-flowing snow-melt streams did not suit Australian fish species in the River Murray.

In any case, building fishways in only two of the thirteen weirs was never going to do much good. Due to cost, a lack of ecological expertise and poor cooperation between the states, plans for further fishways were shelved.

It was not until 1990 that an effective fishway, designed specifically for Australian fish, was built into Torrumbarry Weir. This encouraged the installation fishways in all the weirs and the barrages under the Hume to Sea program which has reconnected over 2,200 km of the River Murray from Albury to the Murray Mouth.

2. Floodplain Inundation

The river channel is only a small part of the River Murray ecosystem. By far the biggest component is the floodplain it flows through.

Floodplain inundation at Paringa, South Australia (M. Cooling)

The floodplain includes the forests and wetlands that are inundated when the river breaks its banks. The River Murray floodplain covers hundreds of thousands of hectares and reaches up to 10 km across.

Before the river was developed, the floodplain was inundated almost every year. Flooding has now been reduced by reservoirs that capture high flows. Extractions have also reduced floods by pumping water from the river into farm dams and crops.

The floodplain is now in a state of on-going water stress. Trees are in poor health, vegetation is sparse, wetlands and lakes are frequently dry and frogs and birds have fewer opportunities to breed.

At some key localities, weirs are being used to restore floodplain inundation. Diverting water from the weir pool to the floodplain can replicate a flood event even when river flows are low.

This was first achieved at Lock 8 where water is diverted on to Mulcra Island. Similar schemes have been developed at Torrumbarry Weir and Chowilla and are being planned at Lock 7, Lock 5 and Lock 4.

Weirs are being used to divert water from the river to inundate the floodplain.

3. Water Level Variation

The weirs have been incredibly effective in stabilising river levels. Careful management of the weir enables operators to keep the upstream level steady, even when river flows change.

The weirs are operated to keep upstream levels stable. Downstream levels fluctuate according to flow (MDBA Data).

Stable river levels are harmful to river ecosystem. Wetlands and forests need to be flooded by high water levels in spring. Grasslands and meadows grow on the banks exposed by low levels in summer.

Weirs are now used to provide seasonal cycles in water level. The first seasonal pattern was created in 2012 when Locks 8 and 9 were raised in winter and lowered in summer.

Seasonal weir cycles are now being introduced to all of weirs downstream of Euston.

Lowering the weir during spring allows aquatic plants to colonise the river edge upstream of Lock 8 (Scott Jaensch)

4. Fast Flowing Water

Slow-flowing water has been one of the worst impacts of the weirs.

Weirs make the river deeper and wider. They slow the flow of water to a crawl. Fast-flowing habitat has been virtually eliminated along the continuous chain of weirs from Mildura to the Murray Mouth. Species that depend on fast-flowing water, such as Murray Crayfish and Trout Cod, have gone extinct in the Lower Murray.

There are two locations where fast-flowing water persists in the Lower Murray, and both are floodplain channels that by-pass the weirs. Mullaroo Creek flows around Lock 7 and Chowilla Creek flows around Lock 6. Both support healthy populations of native fish that are absent elsewhere in the region.

There are proposals to create similar conditions by diverting water from weirs into the creeks that flow around Lock 8 and Lock 4.

There are also proposals to restore fast-flowing water in the river channel. If weirs are lowered far enough, fast-flowing conditions can be restored upstream.

There are few places where weirs can be lowered to this extent. Nearly every weir pool has a dense array of irrigation pumps and diversion channels that would be stranded by low water levels. At this stage, Lock 8 is the best candidate.

Opening the weirs lowers the river level and creates the higher velocities on which native fish and crayfish depend.


These are four important ways that weirs are used to improve the environment.

But they do not make up for the damage the weirs do.

Even with fishways, the weirs will never be entirely transparent to fish. Inundating localised floodplains is a poor substitute for natural, widespread flood events. And restoring a few kilometres of fast-flowing habitat is only a token of the former free-flowing 900 km Lower Murray.

The environmental achievements in weir operations are important. But our benchmark should be ‘river health’ and we still have a lot of work to achieve it.

Sources and Further Reading

Barrett, J. and Mallen-Cooper, M. (2006). The Murray River’s ‘Sea to Hume Dam’ fish passage program: progress to date and lessons learned. Ecological Management and Restoration 7: 173-183.

Ecological Associates (2015). Environmental Water Management Plan for the Murray River from Lock 6 to Lock 10 – System Characterisation. Ecological Associates report AL043-1-A prepared for Mallee Catchment Management Authority, Irymple.

Government of South Australia (2012). Weir Pool Manipulation

Lawrence, B.W. (2014). A history of fishway policy on the River Murray – 1928 to 1988. Unpublished article circulated by


This series of articles is based on work I have done for the New South Wales Office of Water, South Australian Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, North Central Catchment Management Authority and the Mallee Catchment Management Authority.

Thanks to Lance Lloyd for comments on the text.

The River Murray Weirs – Part 2 of 3: Eight Ways Weirs Degrade the River Ecosystem

The River Murray Weirs were constructed 100 years ago for riverboat navigation and to supply water to inland communities. But the weirs have also degraded wetlands, salinised floodplains and devastated native fish populations. 

In this second article I describe the impacts of the weirs on the river ecosystem. The final article in this series will describe ecological mitigation and how weirs are being managed for the environment.

How Weirs Work

A weir is a bank built across a river to raise the water level.

Weirs don’t reduce flow: they just create a storage pool upstream. Once the pool is full, water spills over the weir and continues downstream.

The River Murray weirs were designed to support irrigation and navigation, so the pools are kept as stable as possible. Gates in the weirs are opened or closed as flow increases or decreases so that the level in the pool doesn’t change.

The fall across a weir depends on flow. At very low flows a weir pool will be flat and extend to the foot of the next weir upstream (Figure A). Water velocity will be very slow in the weir pool and higher in the tailwater. At higher flows water spilling over the weir raises the downstream level and the river develops a slope (Figure B). The slow-moving weir pool contracts. At very high flows the downstream and upstream levels equalise and the weir is flooded (Figure C).

There are thirteen weirs on the River Murray between Blanchetown and Echuca, and one further diversion weir at Yarrawonga. There are many more weirs on the tributaries.

Eight Ways Weirs Degrade the River Ecosystem

1. Migrating Fish

Golden Perch is a migratory fish species. In winter and spring the fish swim upstream over hundreds or thousands of kilometres to spawn. In upstream reaches, Golden Perch release eggs in response to flood flows. The eggs drift downstream on the floodwater, hatching along the way and drifting into nursery habitats like wetlands.

The weirs are an insurmountable barrier to fish. By blocking their upstream breeding migrations, weirs have played a major role in the decline of Golden Perch, Silver Perch and other migratory fish.

Golden Perch. Fishways now help fish navigate the weirs. Photo Lance Lloyd.

2. Fragmented Habitat

Even if they don’t migrate, aquatic animals need to move around the river.

Species like turtles, Murray Cod, Australian Smelt and Bony Herring move up and down the river to breed, to search for food and colonise new areas.

The movement of these animals is blocked by weirs. The weirs have segmented the Lower Murray into eleven sections, the shortest only twenty nine kilometres long. The weirs reduce the size of breeding populations, reduces access to habitat and makes populations more vulnerable to local threats.

3. Salt

Saline groundwater occurs naturally beneath the Lower Murray floodplain and is widespread upstream of Locks 4, 5 and 6.

When the weirs raised the river level they also brought groundwater closer to the surface. In many areas the roots of floodplain trees – Black Box and Red Gum – were exposed to salt and became sick or died. Groundwater began to seep into wetland depressions. Freshwater plants were replaced by samphire or, in the worst cases, by a crust of salt.

Lower Pike Floodplain at Lyrup, upstream of Lock 4

4. Slow Flow

Weirs have changed the Lower Murray from a flowing river to a series of lakes. The weirs have made the river broad, deep and very, very slow.

Turbulent, flowing water (faster than 0.3 m/s) is essential to Murray Cod, Trout Cod, River Mussel and Murray Crayfish. All of these species are now either extinct or very rare in the Lower Murray.

Turbulent water, flowing through snags, is ideal habitat for Murray Cod and Trout Cod. These conditions are virtually absent from the Lower Murray.

5. Drowned Wetlands

When the weirs were built they raised the river level and drowned low-lying areas. Thousands of wetlands became permanently flooded.

These wetlands used to be flooded seasonally and supported dense beds of wetland plants. The wetlands were breeding sites for fish and waterbirds and contributed to the river food web.

Permanent flooding changed the wetlands into broad expanses of open water. The wetlands are now much less productive and provide poor habitat for fish and birds.

Morgan Wetland, which was drowned by Lock 1.

6. Willows

Willows like the stable water levels provided by weirs and have become a widespread pest plant on the Lower Murray. They crowd the river bank, excluding native trees and reeds, and provide poorer habitat for native fish and birds.

Willows at Morgan, upstream of Lock 1 (@photosbyharriet)

7. Biofilms

Biofilms are the slime of bacteria, fungi and algae that grow on flooded logs and branches. Biofilms are a major food source for snails, small fish and shrimp, which become food for larger animals.

Biofilms are most productive when they are alternately flooded and dried, which happens when river levels rise and fall. Weirs have stabilised river levels, so snags are either flooded or dry most of the time. As a result, an important component of the river food web has been compromised.

Biofilms grow on flooded rocks, snags, twigs and leaves

8. Acid Sulfate Soils

Weirs have created acid sulfate soil risks by waterlogging floodplain soils.

Floodplains soils are often rich in sulfur minerals. When they are waterlogged and become anoxic the sulfur minerals can be reduced to sulfides. If these soils are exposed to the air again, the sulfides are oxidised into sulfuric acid.

The acid is toxic in its own right, but it also liberates poisonous heavy metals from the sediment. Acid sulfate soils can kill fish and plants and make water unsafe to drink.

Acid sulfate soils are safe while they remain flooded. The risk develops when weirs are lowered or when river flows are very low, which occurred in the Millennium Drought (1997-2011).

Catfish Lagoon at Merbein Common, upstream of Lock 10, has potential for soil acidification.


The weirs have made the river less productive and less hospitable to native plants and animals. But few of these impacts can be blamed on weirs alone. Most are made worse by other things, for example:

  • irrigation drainage increases groundwater and salinity threats;
  • water diversions and flow regulation intensify river stability; and
  • carp reduce plant cover in drowned wetlands.

The final article in this series will describe how weirs are now being operated to reduce these threats and improve environmental outcomes.

See Also

The River Murray Weirs Part 1 of 3: Why so many Weirs?

Sources and Further Reading

MDBA (2011). Acid Sulfate Soils in the Murray-Darling Basin. Murray-Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.

MDBC (2007). The Sea to Hume Dam: Restoring Fish Passage in the River Murray. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Walker, K.F. (2006). Serial weirs, cumulative effects: the Lower River Murray, Australia. Chapter 9 in Kingsford, R. (Ed.) Ecology of Desert Rivers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Thanks to Lance Lloyd for comments on the text.

The Gorge, the Lake and the Abandoned Channel of the River Murray


From Overland Corner to Wellington, over three hundred and forty kilometres, the River Murray is carved deep into the landscape exposing thirty metre high pale yellow limestone cliffs.

The gorge is much deeper and wider than today’s relatively small river could create. Its origins lie in a wetter climate, a massive fault block and the palaeo megalake Bungunnia.

The Douglas Depression

In western Victoria an abandoned river connects the Sunset Country to the coast.

Now mostly filled in by sediment, the channel is hard to recognise on the ground. But this river used to drain the Murray-Darling Basin to the sea.

The Douglas Depression is over two hundred kilometres long. Commencing north of Wyperfeld National Park, it runs south to Douglas. It curves west around the resistant sandstone of Mount Arapiles, then continues south-west towards the coast. The depression is up to twenty kilometres wide but shallow – only thirty to fifty metres lower than the surrounding landscape. But it strongly influences present-day drainage systems. The Wimmera River, when it reaches the depression near Natimuk, turns north. The Glenelg River reaches the depression at Harrow and follows it south-west. Along its length are scattered shallow saline wetlands and lakes including Mitre Lake and White Lake in the south and the Wimmera Terminal Lakes in the north: Lake Hindmarsh, Lake Albacutya, Lake Agnes and the Wirrengren Plain.

Oblique Google Earth image of the Douglas Depression looking north from Balmoral.

Below the surface, the depression is carved up to forty metres into the surrounding geology. It cuts through the dune ridges of the Loxton Parilla Sands and deeper into the underlying limestone.

The western shore of Lake Hindmarsh where the Douglas Depression eroded a cliff into the Loxton Parilla Sands. Photo Lance Lloyd.

The depression was created over five million years ago and discharged to the sea near Portland.

Lake Bungunnia

This ancient River Murray was defeated by a tectonic shift.

The Padthway High is a fault block that stretches from the Grampians to the Mount Lofty Ranges, parallel to the coast.

Adapted from McLaren et al. (2011)

The block was raised 2.4 million years ago, raising with it the bed of the Douglas Depression. Flow from the Murray-Darling basin was gradually choked. With no outlet to the sea a vast freshwater lake was created inland.

Lake Bungunnia is the name given to the lake that extended over the lower Murray-Darling Basin between 2.4 million and 700,000 years ago. The lake initially extended from Swan Hill to Swan Reach, north to Menindie and south to Pinnaroo. At its greatest extent the lake covered 90,000 square km. Today’s largest freshwater lake, Lake Superior, is 82,000 square km.

We know the extent of Lake Bungunnia by the erosion of ancient shorelines and the characteristic grey-greenish clay of the lake bed. The clay has since mostly been buried by windblown sands.

But the lake continues to influence ecosystems today: Lake Tyrrell, the Raak Plain and Noora Basin are all formed on the exposed bed of Lake Bungunnia.

The River Murray Gorge

The maximum extent of Lake Bungunnia was determined by the crest of the Padthaway High. The lake reached a maximum extent in the wet climatic period near the start of its life, and peaked at seventy metres above current sea level. At this level the lake just overtopped the fault block at Swan Reach. This was enough to initiate flow to the sea and to start the erosion of a channel for the future River Murray.

Drier climatic conditions followed and the lake level dropped below the sill. But over the next 1.7 million years, during wet periods, the lake periodically overtopped the sill and reactivated and eroded the channel.

Adapted from McLaren et al. (2012)

At this time the sea level was at least one hundred metres lower than today and the coast was far off the shore of today’s Encounter Bay. This provided a steep gradient from the high point at Swan Reach to the river mouth. Lake outflows cut into the limestone of the fault block to create the Murray Gorge.

Oblique Google Earth image of the River Murray gorge looking upstream near Mannum. Vertical exaggeration x 3.

The gorge finally cut down to the level of Lake Bungunnia 700,000 years ago and drained it completely. But the river continued cutting upstream into the bed of the former lake, completing the gorge at Overland Corner.


The ecosystems we see today are the slowly evolving products of geological and geomorphic processes. We have a much better understanding of how ecosystems work and how to manage them when we understand their environmental setting.

See Also

Mallee Dunefields

The Wirrengren Plain

Further Reading and Sources

Bowler, J. M., Kotsonis, A., and Lawrence, C. R. (2006). Environmental evolution of the mallee region, western Murray Basin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 118: 161–210.

McLaren, S., Wallace, M.W., Gallagher, S.J., Miranda, J.A., Holdgate, G.R., Gow, L.J., Snowball, I. and Sandgren, P. (2011). Palaeogeographic, climatic and tectonic change in southeastern Australia: the Late Neogene evolution of the Murray Basin. Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 1086-1111.

McLaren, S., Wallace, M.W. and Reynolds, T. (2012). The Late Pleistocene evolution of palaeo megalake Bungunnia, southeastern Australia: A sedimentary record of fluctuating lake dynamics, climate change and the formation of the modern Murray River. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 317-318: 114-127.

Hill, P.J., De Deckker, P., von der Borch, C. and Murray-Wallace, C.V. (2009). Ancestral Murray River on the Lacepede Shelf, southern Australia: Late Quaternary migrations of a major river outlet and strand line development. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 56: 135-157.